The EURES portal allows you not only to search for jobs imported from databases of the Czech Republic Labour Office, but also to open a My EURES account. It is also possible to visit the Czech EURES portal at the of the Ministry of Labour and Social Affairs website, where you can search for vacancies offered by foreign employers from individual EU countries, Iceland, Liechtenstein, Norway, and Switzerland.
You may also visit one of the EURES advisors who can be found in the Czech Republic Labour Offices.
Czech Republic Labour Office
The Czech Republic Labour Office offers several options on how to improve your position in the search for new employment. The basic possibility is to browse (staff can help you with this if you wish) a database of vacancies. In addition, the Czech Republic Labour Office offers, for instance, advice on choosing a profession or retraining opportunities.
Private employment agencies
When looking for a job through an agency you should check whether the agency holds the relevant employment agency licence. You will find a list of all the licensed agencies on the portal of the Ministry of Labour and Social Affairs. Most of these agencies have websites, where you can find out more about them. Employment agencies are not authorised to charge for their services.
Mass media and the internet
Web portals provide a rich source of job vacancies. Not only can you search for offers posted directly by employers or agencies, but you can often also upload your CV into the database so that it can be viewed by employers searching for workers. In most Czech national newspapers, there is a section on job vacancies. Social networks are another potential tool that can be used to search for job vacancies.
In certain situations, it is better to contact an employer directly, particularly if you are applying for seasonal or casual work in rural areas. Of course, you can also address other employers directly, either through their websites or their human resources departments. The overwhelming majority of employers require a knowledge of Czech.
Employment agency licence control
Czech EURES portal
The most common way of applying for a job is to send a CV accompanied by a cover letter. However, this is not always the best approach. If you are looking for manual work, it is better to go and see the employer in person.
Most employers require an active knowledge of Czech; therefore, your application should be drafted accordingly. You may also ask in advance about the employer's language preferences.
This letter should be brief The content of the letter should be focused on the specific job you are applying for. You should indicate the reason why you are applying for the job and what you can offer the employer. Larger companies use a pre-printed questionnaire instead of a cover letter, focusing on issues relevant for the employer.
Curriculum Vitae (CV)
A curriculum vitae should usually be in a structured form. It should contain the following particulars:
Personal data - your name and surname, address (the city is enough), telephone number, and email. You may, but do not have to, state your date of birth and nationality.
Education – information about your education (secondary school and higher)
Professional experience – the most important part, this section should indicate the positions held, brief job descriptions, the length of time you worked in each position (graduates may include seasonal work or short periods of work experience) and references.
Other skills – languages, computer literacy, driving licence, other certificates and training completed.
References – names and contact details for previous employers who may confirm your professional experience or provide other information about you.
If you are invited to a selection procedure or to an interview, you should take your curriculum vitae and copies of all certificates with you as your portfolio. Since selection procedures are rather formal occasions in the Czech Republic, it is important to dress appropriately. In some cases, an interview may be accompanied by a psychological test.
Curricula vitae on the EURES portal
Information and advisory centres at labour offices (IPS)
In Czechia, there is no formal definition of a traineeship or national legal framework for traineeships.
Traineeships may be organized in private companies in various fields, such as administration, engineering, construction, services, etc. Potential trainees can apply for a traineeship only in a field that corresponds to their field of study.
Traineeships take place in approved companies that can provide young people with the necessary background to gain practical experience. The length of traineeships ranges from one to four months, or more exactly from 50 to 300 hours. Young people are employed by the companies that provide them with practical training in the relevant field and are supervised by approved mentors. At the end of their traineeship, they receive a certificate confirming the results they have achieved in their field.
Nationals of other EEA countries may also apply for an traineeship if they are permanently resident in Czechia.
Traineeships are based on a traineeship contract that sets minimum standards for the training content. So far, there is no specific legislation governing traineeships, but they are being prepared.
Living and working conditions
Traineeships are available for students who are permanently resident in Czechia and are in their final year of study at a secondary school or university. Traineeships are paid - at least 60 CZK/hour. (2.2 EUR/hour).
Where to find opportunities / job vacancies
Traineeships in Czechia are secured by the Further Education Fund, an institution implementing a project called Traineeships for the Young. More information can be found on the project website – http://www.stazepromlade.cz/.
Funding and support
Applicants can seek support and information on the Traineeships for the Young website – http://www.stazepromlade.cz/.
Where to advertise opportunities
Employers can register on the Traineeships for the Young project website (www.stazepromlade.cz), where they can offer traineeships and specify their candidate requirements by filling in a position offer form. The website acts as a routine internet portal for employers and job applicants, which means that employers create a job offer with a job description and candidate, and applicants can apply for a position by sending a CV and a cover letter. The recruitment process for trainees is very similar to the routine recruitment process.
Funding and support
Employers should contact members of the project team directly at the following e-mail address: email@example.com or may call the project information line at + 420 777 492 495.
In Czechia, there is no formal apprenticeship programme equivalent to the dual system, that is, here there is no programme that includes a contract between the apprentice and the employer, nor a shared responsibility between the employer and the school in connection with training (as in Germany or Austria, for example). Education and professional training are the sole responsibility of schools, and curriculums cover a large proportion of theory as opposed to practical teaching. However, practical vocational education at the workplace and professional training are a compulsory part of the curricula for initial vocational education and training.
Students start vocational education after completing elementary school, i.e. usually at the age of 15 (after completing their compulsory nine-year school attendance).
Under the Education Act, training provided by secondary schools consists of two parts - theoretical and practical. Practical training is provided either in schools (e.g. practical work in laboratories, school workshops or fictitious companies, etc.) or in a real-work environment (e.g. practical training in companies).
Some elements of the dual system, in particular the scope of practical teaching and its quality from an organizational, personnel and financial point of view, have been submitted for implementation within the existing system.
Companies that provide practical training enter into an agreement with the school on the content and scope of this and the conditions for its delivery. Based on this agreement, these companies can then make use of tax incentives. The amendment to the Income Tax Act (Act No 586/1992) entered into force on 1 January 2014.
The amendment allows employers who effectively engage in cooperation with schools on the basis of contracts for the provision of practical training and professional practice to deduct eligible costs if these are not covered by the state or the school's founding organisation. The following changes have been made:
- the maximum deductible amount for corporate scholarships was increased from CZK 2 000 to CZK 5 000 per month for secondary school students and from CZK 5 000 to CZK 10 000 for students of higher vocational education institutions,
- a deductible amount of CZK 200 per hour of practical teaching or professional practice provided to a trainee/student at the taxpayer's workplace was introduced,
- an additional deduction of 50% or 110% of the acquisition price of any asset acquired and used at least in part for vocational training purposes was enabled, depending on the extent of use for training purposes.
Description of schemes
The scope of practical training provided either at the workplace or in a vocational education and training institution may differ depending on the individual fields of study. For secondary education with an apprenticeship certificate (ISCED 353), three-year programmes cover 30% of general subjects, while practical training represents at least 36-46% depending on the field of study and the required job skills. Schools may increase the amount of practical training in school training programmes on the basis of a contract with their social partners.
Practical training is usually provided in the form of weekly cycles - a week of theory at school and a week of practical training at the workplace, but other schemes are also common. During their three-year period of study, students usually become acquainted with different types of operations.
In secondary education with a school-leaving examination - i.e. in the four-year programmes usually provided by secondary vocational schools (ISCED 354), practical teaching represents 3–37% of overall teaching. The minimum mandatory scope of professional practice set by the framework educational programme is four weeks, but in a number of study programmes the share of practical teaching is higher (on average it is 6-8 weeks during a programme). Professional practice is provided in the form of multi-week blocks. As a rule these are included at the end of the school year, but this often depends on the specifics of the field (e.g. during the summer holidays for tourism or agricultural programmes).
Secondary education with an apprenticeship certificate (ISCED 353) prepares graduates primarily for the labour market and in Czechia this is traditionally referred to as ‘apprenticeship training’, or apprenticeship in English. Secondary education with a school-leaving certificate (ISCED 354), which prepares graduates for the labour market but also for study at higher vocational schools, is not perceived in the national context as ‘apprenticeship training’ (for example its participants are not called ‘apprentices’ but ‘students/learners’ etc.); nevertheless, to a large extent it meets the definition of an apprenticeship and together with secondary education with an apprenticeship certificate forms a relatively consistent and well-established mainstream of Czech secondary initial vocational education and training, where both programmes are provided by one institution ‘under one roof’.
Practical teaching is usually provided in the form of weekly cycles - a week of theoretical teaching at school and a week of practical teaching at the workplace, but other schemes are also common. During their three-year period of study, students usually become acquainted with different types of organisations.
Public vocational education and training is provided free of charge. For more information on access for other EEA nationals, please contact the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports of Czechia.
Living and working conditions
However, the Education Act does stipulate the right of a trainee/student to remuneration for any productive activity that brings income to the (business) entity at whose workplace the traineeship is taking place. The minimum value of this monthly remuneration is 30% of the minimum wage.
Most regional authorities provide scholarships or other benefits for students. The aim is to attract applicants or motivate students to stay in the programme and complete it. The usual prerequisites for obtaining a scholarship are regular school attendance, excellent study results and good behaviour. Scholarship programmes may vary slightly from region to region. A student can usually receive a total amount of approximately EUR 1 000 for 3 years of study (the monthly amount depends on the specific year of study).
Where to find opportunities / job vacancies
The school principal is responsible for determining and providing practical teaching or professional practice. The principal usually contacts representatives of companies in the relevant region in order to establish collaboration and to secure a responsible and reliable partner for the school.
Funding and support
Departments of Education of the regional authorities.
Where to advertise opportunities
Domestic employers may contact directly the school principal or a representative of the Education Department of the regional office or representatives of the regional Chamber of Commerce.
Funding and support
The House of Foreign Cooperation (DZS) is a state aid-funded organisation established and managed by the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports of Czechia. Inter alia, the DZS provides information and guidance to all those interested in initial vocational education and training in Czechia. The DZS also plays the role of the national agency for the Erasmus+ programme in Czechia.
The free movement of goods is one of the cornerstones of the European Single Market.
The removal of national barriers to the free movement of goods within the EU is one of the principles enshrined in the EU Treaties. From a traditionally protectionist starting point, the countries of the EU have continuously been lifting restrictions to form a ‘common’ or single market. This commitment to create a European trading area without frontiers has led to the creation of more wealth and new jobs, and has globally established the EU as a world trading player alongside the United States and Japan.
Despite Europe’s commitment to breaking down all internal trade barriers, not all sectors of the economy have been harmonised. The European Union decided to regulate at a European level sectors which might impose a higher risk for Europe’s citizens – such as pharmaceuticals or construction products. The majority of products (considered a ‘lower risk’) are subject to the application of the so-called principle of mutual recognition, which means that essentially every product legally manufactured or marketed in one of the Member States can be freely moved and traded within the EU internal market.
Limits to the free movement of goods
The EU Treaty gives Member States the right to set limits to the free movement of goods when there is a specific common interest such as protection of the environment, citizens’ health, or public policy, to name a few. This means for example that if the import of a product is seen by a Member State’s national authorities as a potential threat to public health, public morality or public policy, it can deny or restrict access to its market. Examples of such products are genetically modified food or certain energy drinks.
Even though there are generally no limitations for the purchase of goods in another Member State, as long as they are for personal use, there is a series of European restrictions for specific categories of products, such as alcohol and tobacco.
Free movement of capital
Another essential condition for the functioning of the internal market is the free movement of capital. It is one of the four basic freedoms guaranteed by EU legislation and represents the basis of the integration of European financial markets. Europeans can now manage and invest their money in any EU Member State.
The liberalisation of capital markets has marked a crucial point in the process of economic and monetary integration in the EU. It was the first step towards the establishment of our European Economic and Monetary Union (EMU) and the common currency, the Euro.
The principle of the free movement of capital not only increases the efficiency of financial markets within the Union, it also brings a series of advantages to EU citizens. Individuals can carry out a broad number of financial operations within the EU without major restrictions. For instance, individuals with few restrictions can
- easily open a bank account,
- buy shares
- invest, or
- purchase real estate
in another Member State. EU Companies can invest in, own and manage other European enterprises.
Certain exceptions to this principle apply both within the Member States and with third countries. They are mainly related to taxation, prudential supervision, public policy considerations, money laundering and financial sanctions agreed under the EU Common Foreign and Security Policy.
The European Commission is continuing to work on the completion of the free market for financial services, by implementing new strategies for financial integration in order to make it even easier for citizens and companies to manage their money within the EU.
The availability of accommodation and rents depends on location. Lettings in larger cities are much more expensive than those in smaller towns or rural areas.
Flat rentals are common in bigger towns, where the rent depends on the size of the flat, the location, furnishings, and the age of the building. Prices in Prague are several times higher than in the rest of the Czech Republic. Relatively high prices are also becoming more common in all the regional capitals. Young people often rent only one room in a flat or a house, mostly to facilitate commuting to work or to school and to save on housing costs (for more information see the server ‘Spolubydlo').
More information about these issues can be obtained from the municipal authorities or real estate agencies in the place where you are looking for accommodation (a link is provided under ‘Links’).
Rent is usually paid monthly and a security deposit equal to at least one month’s rent often has to be paid in advance. As a general rule, properties for rent and sale can be found also on specialised websites. You may also place a small ad for accommodation matching your requirements, or use advertising newspapers (Avizo, Annonce) or social networks.
An EU/EEA citizen who wishes to buy property in the Czech Republic (a flat or a house) must hold a residence permit.
The Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports (MŠMT) is the central state administration authority responsible for pre-school facilities, primary and secondary schools and universities.
You can obtain information about schools and educational facilities in the place where you are living in the Czech Republic from the education department of the regional authorities.
Information on primary schools and pre-school facilities can be obtained from the education departments of the city or local authority in which you live.
Information on secondary schools and universities can be found on the portal of the Ministry of Labour and Social Affairs of the Czech Republic.
Ministry of Labour and Social Affairs portal – presentation of schools
Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports of the Czech Republic
The implementation of the principle of free movement of people, is one of the cornerstones of our European construction, has meant the introduction a series of practical rules to ensure that citizens can travel freely and easily to any Member State of the European Union. Travelling across the EU with one’s car has become a lot less problematic. The European Commission has set a series of common regulations governing the mutual recognition of driving licences, the validity of car insurance, and the possibility of registering your car in a host country.
Your driving licence in the EU
The EU has introduced a harmonised licence model and further minimum requirements for obtaining a licence. This should help to keep unsafe drivers off Europe's roads - wherever they take their driving test.
Since 19 January 2013, all driving licences issued by EU countries have the same look and feel. The licences are printed on a piece of plastic that has the size and shape of a credit card.
Harmonised administrative validity periods for the driving licence document have been introduced which are between 10 and 15 years for motorcycles and passenger cars. This enables the authorities to regularly update the driving licence document with new security features that will make it harder to forge or tamper - so unqualified or banned drivers will find it harder to fool the authorities, in their own country or elsewhere in the EU.
The new European driving licence is also protecting vulnerable road users by introducing progressive access for motorbikes and other powered two-wheelers. The "progressive access" system means that riders will need experience with a less powerful bike before they go on to bigger machines. Mopeds will also constitute a separate category called AM.
You must apply for a licence in the country where you usually or regularly live. As a general rule, it is the country where you live for at least 185 days each calendar year because of personal or work-related ties.
If you have personal/work-related ties in 2 or more EU countries, your place of usual residence is the place where you have personal ties, as long as you go back regularly. You don't need to meet this last condition if you are living in an EU country to carry out a task for a fixed period of time.
If you move to another EU country to go to college or university, your place of usual residence doesn't change. However, you can apply for a driving licence in your host country if you can prove you have been studying there for at least 6 months.
Registering your car in the host country
If you move permanently to another EU country and take your car with you, you should register your car and pay car-related taxes in your new country.
There are no common EU rules on vehicle registration and related taxes. Some countries have tax-exemption rules for vehicle registration when moving with the car from one country to another permanently.
To benefit from a tax exemption, you must check the applicable deadlines and conditions in the country you wish to move to.
Check the exact rules and deadlines with the national authorities: https://europa.eu/youreurope/citizens/vehicles/registration/registration-abroad/index_en.htm
EU citizens can insure their car in any EU country, as long as the chosen insurance company is licensed by the host national authority to issue the relevant insurance policies. A company based in another Member State is entitled sell a policy for compulsory civil liability only if certain conditions are met. Insurance will be valid throughout the Union, no matter where the accident takes place.
Value Added Tax or VAT on motor vehicles is ordinarily paid in the country where the car is purchased, although under certain conditions, VAT is paid in the country of destination.
More information on the rules which apply when a vehicle is acquired in one EU Member State and is intended to be registered in another EU Member State is available on this link https://europa.eu/youreurope/citizens/vehicles/registration/taxes-abroad/index_en.htm.
If you are a citizen of an EU/EEA Member State or Switzerland and come to the Czech Republic, you have to comply with the following procedures:
Registering your residence
If you plan to stay in the territory of the Czech Republic for more than 30 days, you must report it to the Aliens Police in the place where you are staying within 30 days of your entry into the country.
If you wish to stay longer than 3 months, you may apply for a temporary residence permit at a regional office of the Ministry of the Interior (Department for Asylum and Migration Policy).
For this purpose, you will need the following documents:
- a valid travel document (e.g. EU citizen’s identity card);
- a document proving the purpose of your stay, if it is employment, entrepreneurship or another gainful activity, or to study;
- 1 photograph;
- proof of health insurance (not required if the purpose of residence is employment, entrepreneurship or another gainful activity);
- proof of having accommodation in the Czech Republic.
Under EU regulations, purposes of stay are as follows:
- economic activity, and
- family reasons.
Even if you do not need a residence permit (because you wish to stay for less than 3 months) we recommend registering with the Aliens Police. Registration may be required by some institutions, particularly banks and tax authorities.
Department of Asylum and Migration Policy
Ministry of the Interior of the Czech Republic
Before leaving for the Czech Republic, you should make sure that you have:
- made arrangements for (temporary) accommodation;
- sufficient funds for the first month of your stay;
- the appropriate documents:
- a valid travel document;
- a European Health Insurance Card or other proof of health insurance;
U1 form (E301), or U2 form (E303) – European forms for the coordination of unemployment benefits;
- general information about the Czech Republic.
After arriving in the Czech Republic, you should:
- register with the municipal authority in the place you plan to stay;
- register with the Aliens Police or subsequently apply for a residence permit at the regional office of the Ministry of the Interior of the Czech Republic;
- register for health and social insurance and tax;
- open a bank account.
Labour Office – forms U1, U2
Health Insurance Bureau
Czech Social Security Administration (social insurance)
Quality of work and employment - a vital issue, with a strong economic and humanitarian impact
Good working conditions are important for the well-being of European workers. They
- contribute to the physical and psychological welfare of Europeans, and
- contribute to the economic performance of the EU.
From a humanitarian point of view, the quality of working environment has a strong influence on the overall work and life satisfaction of European workers.
From an economic point of view, high-quality job conditions are a driving force of economic growth and a foundation for the competitive position of the European Union. A high level of work satisfaction is an important factor for achieving high productivity of the EU economy.
It is therefore a core issue for the European Union to promote the creation and maintenance of a sustainable and pleasant working environment – one that promotes health and well-being of European employees and creates a good balance between work and non-work time.
Improving working conditions in Europe: an important objective for the European Union.
Ensuring favourable working conditions for European citizens is a priority for the EU. The European Union is therefore working together with national governments to ensure a pleasant and secure workplace environment. Support to Member States is provided through:
- the exchange of experience between different countries and common actions
- the establishment of the minimum requirements on working conditions and health and safety at work, to be applied all over the European Union
Criteria for quality of work and employment
In order to achieve sustainable working conditions, it is important to determine the main characteristics of a favourable working environment and thus the criteria for the quality of working conditions.
The European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions (Eurofound) in Dublin, is an EU agency that provides information, advice and expertise on, as the name implies, living and working conditions. This agency has established several criteria for job and employment quality, which include:
- health and well-being at the workplace – this is a vital criteria, since good working conditions suppose the prevention of health problems at the work place, decreasing the exposure to risk and improving work organisation
- reconciliation of working and non-working life – citizens should be given the chance to find a balance between the time spent at work and at leisure
- skills development – a quality job is one that gives possibilities for training, improvement and career opportunities
The work of Eurofound contributes to the planning and design of better living and working conditions in Europe.
Health and safety at work
The European Commission has undertaken a wide scope of activities to promote a healthy working environment in the EU Member States. Amongst others, it developed a Community Strategy for Health and Safety at Work for the period 2021-2027. This strategy was set up with the help of national authorities, social partners and NGOs. It addresses the changing needs in worker’s protection brought by the digital and green transitions, new forms of work and the COVID-19 pandemic. At the same time, the framework will continue to address traditional occupational safety and health risks, such as risks of accidents at work or exposure to hazardous chemicals.
The Community policy on health and safety at work aims at a long-lasting improvement of well-being of EU workers. It takes into account the physical, moral and social dimensions of working conditions, as well as the new challenges brought up by the enlargement of the European Union towards countries from Central and Eastern Europe. The introduction of EU standards for health and safety at the workplace, has contributed a lot to the improvement of the situation of workers in these countries.
Improving working conditions by setting minimum requirements common to all EU countries
Improving living and working conditions in the EU Member States depends largely on the establishment of common labour standards. EU labour laws and regulations have set the minimum requirements for a sustainable working environment and are now applied in all Member States. The improvement of these standards has strengthened workers’ rights and is one of the main achievements of the EU’s social policy.
The importance of transparency and mutual recognition of diplomas as a crucial complement to the free movement of workers
The possibility of obtaining recognition of one’s qualifications and competences can play a vital role in the decision to take up work in another EU country. It is therefore necessary to develop a European system that will guarantee the mutual acceptance of professional competences in different Member States. Only such a system will ensure that a lack of recognition of professional qualifications will not become an obstacle to workers’ mobility within the EU.
Main principles for the recognition of professional qualifications in the EU
As a basic principle, any EU citizen should be able to freely practice their profession in any Member State. Unfortunately the practical implementation of this principle is often hindered by national requirements for access to certain professions in the host country.
For the purpose of overcoming these differences, the EU has set up a system for the recognition of professional qualifications. Within the terms of this system, a distinction is made between regulated professions (professions for which certain qualifications are legally required) and professions that are not legally regulated in the host Member State.
Steps towards a transparency of qualifications in Europe
The European Union has taken important steps towards the objective of achieving transparency of qualifications in Europe:
- An increased co-operation in vocational education and training, with the intention to combine all instruments for transparency of certificates and diplomas, in one single, user-friendly tool. This includes, for example, the European CV or Europass Trainings.
- The development of concrete actions in the field of recognition and quality in vocational education and training.
Going beyond the differences in education and training systems throughout the EU
Education and training systems in the EU Member States still show substantial differences. The last enlargements of the EU, with different educational traditions, have further increased this diversity. This calls for a need to set up common rules to guarantee recognition of competences.
In order to overcome this diversity of national qualification standards, educational methods and training structures, the European Commission has put forward a series of instruments, aimed at ensuring better transparency and recognition of qualifications both for academic and professional purposes.
The European Qualifications Framework is a key priority for the European Commission in the process of recognition of professional competences. The main objective of the framework is to create links between the different national qualification systems and guarantee a smooth transfer and recognition of diplomas.
A network of National Academic Recognition Information Centres was established in 1984 at the initiative of the European Commission. The NARICs provide advice on the academic recognition of periods of study abroad. Located in all EU Member States as well as in the countries of the European Economic Area, NARICs play a vital role the process of recognition of qualifications in the EU.
The European Credit Transfer System aims at facilitating the recognition of periods of study abroad. Introduced in 1989, it functions by describing an education programme and attaching credits to its components. It is a key complement to the highly acclaimed student mobility programme Erasmus.
Europass is an instrument for ensuring the transparency of professional skills. It is composed of five standardised documents
- a CV (Curriculum Vitae),
- a cover letter editor,
- certificate supplements,
- diploma supplements, and
- a Europass-Mobility document.
The Europass system makes skills and qualifications clearly and easily understood in the different parts of Europe. In every country of the European Union and the European Economic Area, national Europass centres have been established as the primary contact points for people seeking for information about the Europass system.
Persons over the age of 15 who have completed compulsory schooling may become an employee. In recent years, the use of temporary employment contracts has increased significantly. The duration of a fixed-term contract may not exceed 3 years, and may be repeated no more than twice. The most common type of employment is full-time employment and part-time employment.
The following types of employment exist:
Seasonal and casual work
An employment relationship concluded for a short period, in an atypical form (various casual, one-off, irregular, small-scale jobs, etc.). Such work is often mediated by recruitment agencies specialising in casual work.
Voluntary work may be performed by a person over the age of 15 if it is carried out in the territory of the Czech Republic and by a person over the age of 18 if carried out abroad. There is no upper age limit. A volunteer performs voluntary service under a contract concluded with the dispatching organisation.
Employment through an agency
Under labour law, an agency employee is contracted to the agency, which seconds him/her to its clients/users to carry out work on a temporary basis. The employee must have an employment contract or an agreement on work activities with the agency. In principle, the employment agency may not second the employee to the same client for more than 12 calendar months. This does not apply if the employee requests it or the secondment concerns replacing someone on maternity or parental leave. An employment agency may not temporarily assign employees to work for a client if they have been issued with a green or a blue card or a work permit, or are disabled.
There are also agreements on work performed without an employment contract, namely agreements on performance of work and agreements on work activities.
An agreement on performance of work may be concluded if the envisaged scope of work does not exceed 300 hours a year. Such agreements may be concluded only with respect to a single and integrated work task. On the other hand, an agreement on work activities may also be concluded for generically defined work. Such agreements must always be in writing.
An employer may conclude an agreement on work activity even if the expected scope of work exceeds 300 hours in the same calendar year and the working hours must not exceed 40 hours per week; one can therefore work a maximum of 20 hours per week under an agreement on work activity. Such activities are of a repetitive nature (e.g. cleaning). The agreement must always be in writing.
Labour Code (Act No 262/2006)
Employment Act (Act No 435/2004)
Trade Licensing Act
Private employment agencies
The employment relationship can only be established with the consent of the employer (natural or legal person) and the employee (natural person), even if the employment relationship is established by appointment, i.e. a unilateral legal act. However, the employee's consent to such a unilateral act is a condition for the validity of the appointment. Prior to the conclusion of an employment contract, the employer is obliged to inform employees of their rights and obligations.
Mandatory particulars to be specified in an employment contract are as follows:
- the kind of work – function, duties
- the place of performance of the work – municipality and organisational unit or a location defined in some other way
- the starting date – most often the precise date.
An employment contract must always be concluded in writing and the employee must receive a copy; the employer retains a second copy. If the contract does not specify the employee's rights and obligations, the employee must be informed about them in writing within one month of the start of the employment. If the employee fails to turn up for work on the agreed date and fails to notify the employer within one week of the reason for not having done so, the employer may terminate the employment contract.
Rights and obligations should specify:
- the employee’s name and surname
- the name and registered office of the employer
- a detailed specification of the kind and place of performance of the work
- the amount of leave – by law, no less than 4 weeks
- the period of notice – the notice is at least 2 months, unless agreed otherwise
- the weekly working time and work patterns – basic working time is 40 hours per week
- information on pay and arrangements for remuneration (frequency, date, place and method of payment)
- information on collective bargaining agreements governing working conditions
- information on the conditions of employment and internal rules on health and safety at work
- information on the collective bargaining agreement and internal rules
The employment relationship is established as of the date which has been agreed in the employment contract as the starting date.
The agreed content of the employment contract can be changed only by agreement between the employer and the employee. Any such change must always be made in writing. An employment relationship may be terminated by agreement, by giving notice, by immediate termination or by termination during the probationary period, but always in accordance with statutory provisions.
Ministry of the Interior
Ministry of Labour and Social Affairs
Working conditions for women
- Women may not perform work which might put at risk their ability to conceive or any unborn child they might be carrying. Work and workplaces in which it is prohibited to employ breastfeeding women, pregnant women and mothers until the end of the ninth month after childbirth are listed in a decree of the Ministry of Health.
- Pregnant women and parents caring for a child under 1 year of age may not be instructed to work overtime.
- Apart from the usual breaks at work, the employer is obliged to provide an employee who breastfeeds her child special breaks for breastfeeding. Pregnant women have the right to be employed until six weeks before the planned delivery date.
- Pregnant employees and parents caring for children under 8 years of age may be required to travel for work outside the municipality in which they work or live only if they agree to do so; an employer may transfer them only if they so request. They also have the right to ask to change their working time arrangements, and an employer should agree unless there are serious operational reasons for not doing so.
- The specific conditions are laid down in the Labour Code.
Working conditions for young people
- In the interests of healthy physical and psychological development not only during childhood but also during adolescence, young people should not be employed to carry out work that might put their development at risk: they may not work overtime, at night (except where the night work does not exceed 1 hour and is necessary for their professional training), or underground in the extraction of minerals or construction of tunnels or galleries.
- Persons over the age of 15 who have completed compulsory schooling may be employed.
- The working hours of a young person (15-18 years of age) must not exceed 40 hours per week and the length of one shift must not exceed 8 hours.
- The regional branches of the Czech Labour Office are responsible for decisions concerning the employment of children.
Persons with disabilities
- Natural persons with disabilities are afforded greater protection on the labour market.
- They are defined as persons recognised by the social security authorities as disabled (to one of three degrees) or as persons with a health disadvantage.
- They are entitled, for example, to occupational rehabilitation, or to a sheltered workplace; if they are in employment, they may apply for certain benefits under the Employment Act.
Labour Code (Act No 262/2006)
Employment Act (Act No 435/2004)
Czech National Disability Council
Information portal for persons with special needs
Trade business is a specific area of business in the field of production, trade and provision of services. Trade means a systematic activity carried on independently, in one's own name, on one's own responsibility,
for profit and under the conditions laid down by the Trade Licensing Act. You can only run a business
on the basis of a trade licence.
If you wish to start a business, you must notify a trades licensing office in order to obtain a trade licence (now an extract from the Trade Licence Register). This licence is also required for registration with the financial (tax) authorities and on other occasions (registration with wholesale facilities, opening of a bank account, etc.). Within a week or so of submitting all the necessary documents, you will get an extract from the Trade Licence Register and an eight-digit identification number (IČ, IČO).
BASIC CONDITIONS FOR RUNNING A BUSINESS
- integrity and full legal capacity, or consent of the legal representative of a minor and court authorisation for the minor.
Specific conditions: professional capacity (education or practical experience in the field in question) is required for craft trades and closed professions, and for concessions.
You can use the Universal Registration Document for any required or voluntary registration or declaration procedure, i.e. starting a business, registering for income tax and making health insurance and social security declarations. The document can also be used to register for road tax, VAT or employees’ income tax, depending on what you need. You do not need an extract from the criminal records; the trades licensing office takes care of that itself. If you do not use the Universal Registration Document you will have to register with each relevant office/insurance scheme separately. The fee for a trade licence has to be paid before you can file your notification.
The requirement to register businesses is laid down in the Trades Licensing Act and applies to both Czech citizens and foreigners.
A self-employed person pays regular contributions for social security and health insurance. Sickness insurance is voluntary.
The minimum monthly contributions for social security and health insurance in 2022 are:
- Health insurance: CZK 2 627
- Social security: CZK 2 841
- Sickness insurance: CZK 147
There are three types of trades: unregistered, registered and craft, and licensed.
List of general trades licensing offices
Trades Licensing Act (Act No 455/1991)
Information portal on EU legislation
Czech Social Security Administration
Czech Chamber of Commerce Business Handbook 2022
Ministry of Industry and Trade
The minimum wage is the lowest wage an employer can pay. The minimum wage is set at both an hourly rate and a monthly salary. The minimum wage applies to all employees in employment or legal relationships based on work contracts outside the employment relationship (agreement on performance of work and agreement on work activities). No distinction is made as to whether the employment is for a fixed or indefinite period or for simultaneous employment.
The level is regulated by the Labour Code and may be changed every year in line with the economic situation. The minimum wage is currently CZK 16 200 gross or 96.40 CZK/hour (as of 01/01/2022).
Gross and net wage
Certain deductions are made from the gross wage of every employee (further information about wage deductions can be found in the taxation and labour costs section). These deductions are made up of health and social insurance on the one hand and income tax on the other, the latter in the form of advance tax payments (there is an annual tax settlement at the end of the year). After these deductions have been made, the balance is the net wage. Other individual deductions may also be made from an employee's wage, for the repayment of loans, savings, etc.
If employees do not carry out their work duties for a certain period of time for reasons set out in the Labour Code and are, for example, on holiday or on sick leave, they do not receive their normal pay but instead get ‘compensation’ pay. In certain cases compensation pay will correspond to the average net wage of the employee but in other cases it will be lower or will only be paid for a certain number of days.
Methods of payments of wages
Wages are normally paid on a fixed pay date by transfer to a bank account or directly to the employee in cash. The wage is payable for work carried out and is payable at the latest during the following month. Advance payments may also be agreed which can be paid to the employee before the fixed pay date.
Wages can also be paid in a foreign currency if there is a current exchange rate fixed by the Czech National Bank.
On the monthly salary payment date, the employer is obliged to issue to the employee a written document including information about individual salary components and deductions. Upon the employee's request, all documents used to calculate the wage must be presented by the employer to the employee.
Labour Code (Act No 262/2006)
The weekly working time may not exceed 40 hours.
The weekly working time of employees:
- working underground in the extraction of coal, ore or non-ore minerals, in mining construction and at geological exploration mining facilities may not exceed 37.5 hours;
- working in three-shift and uninterrupted working regimes may not exceed 37.5 hours;
- working in two-shift regimes may not exceed 38.75 hours.
For employees of below the age of 18, the length of individual daily shifts may not exceed 8 hours. The aggregate length of the weekly working time of an employee below the age of 18 who has two or more jobs may not exceed 40 hours.
In the Czech Republic the 40-hour week is divided into five working days with an eight-hour daily working time. The lunch break is not included in working time. Working hours in government institutions usually differ from those in private companies.
Larger companies in the Czech Republic have collective agreements that can, for example, govern working time, overtime pay, time in lieu, various contributions for holidays, pensions, the setting up of company crèches, and improved occupational safety.
In the Czech Republic, the basic holiday entitlement is four weeks per year. Longer holiday entitlements may be agreed in collective agreements. Of course, you may not work for the same employer for a whole year. If, however, your employment lasts longer than 60 days, you have a right to a certain part of the entitlement.
Labour Code (Act No 262/2006)
In the Czech Republic, the regular holiday entitlement of employees working under an employment contract is 4 weeks per year. Generally, longer holiday entitlements may be agreed in collective agreements. Certain groups of employees (in public administration and autonomous public bodies and contributory organisations) are entitled to 5 weeks, other groups (teachers and academic staff) to 8 weeks.
The right to take leave arises on the basis of the conversion of the employee's weekly working time into hours, which is multiplied by the annual holiday allowance. Thus, if an employee is entitled to 4 weeks of leave, this is an entitlement of 160 hours. Anyone working only part of a year is entitled to a proportion of that leave.
The period when holiday may be taken is determined by the employer as agreed with the trade union or the employee. Every employee is entitled to take at least 2 consecutive weeks of holiday.
Other types of holiday and leave from work:
Paid maternity leave - In connection with childbirth and the care of a newborn child, the maternity leave entitlement is 28 weeks; in the case of multiple births, the entitlement is 37 weeks. If the mother has worked at least 270 days in the last two years, she is entitled to a maternity benefit, which is paid at least 6 weeks before the birth (not earlier than 8 weeks before the birth) within six months of the child's birth.
Paternity leave (postnatal paternity care) - granted to the father, if he is named on the birth certificate, or to the insured person (male or female) who has taken custody of the child in place of parental care on the basis of a decision by the competent authority. The parents don't have to be married. Paternity leave corresponds to 14 days in relation to the care of a new-born child. The paternity allowance can only be granted on the condition that paternity leave is taken within 6 weeks from the date of birth of the child or from the date on which the child was taken into care. The date on which the father starts his paternity leave can be determined by each individual.
Parental leave – this type of leave may be granted, upon request, to a mother or father after the end of maternity leave or upon taking a child into his/her care and until the child reaches the age of 4. The employer is obliged to provide this leave under the Labour Code, but not after the child reaches the age of 3.
Additional holiday – employees performing extremely hard work or work that is harmful to their health are entitled to an additional week’s holiday per year
Leave to attend training or other forms of preparation or study
for the purpose of furthering qualifications shall be considered as performance of work and the employee shall be entitled to leave with pay or salary compensation for this period of furthering qualifications
at the rate of average earnings.
Working during national holidays is intended to ensure the continuity of the operations of individual organisations and companies. If you work during a national holiday, you will be entitled to extra pay in accordance with the law.
State holidays and periods of leave for the year 2022:
1 January – anniversary of the re-establishment of the independent Czech State, New Year’s Day
15 April – Good Friday
18 April – Easter Monday
1 May – Labour Day
8 May – Victory Day
5 July – day commemorating the Slavic apostles Cyril and Methodius
6 July – anniversary of Jan Hus being burnt at the stake
28 September – Czech Statehood Day
28 October – anniversary of the establishment of the independent Czechoslovak State
17 November – Day of Struggle for Freedom and Democracy
24 December – Christmas Eve
25 December – Christmas Day
26 December – Boxing Day
Labour Code (Act No 262/2006)
Employment may be terminated in the Czech Republic by the employer or the employee in several ways:
By agreement – concluded between the employer and the employee as of a fixed date
By giving notice – in writing presented by the employer (giving a reason provided for by law) or by the employee (no reason need be given)
By immediate termination – on the part of the employee, employer. Exceptionally, the employer may terminate the employment of the employee immediately, e.g. on the grounds of gross misconduct. The employee may terminate the employment relationship immediately, for example for health reasons (more in §55 of the Labour Code).
Termination during the trial period – by either the employer or the employee; no reason need be given
Upon expiry of the agreed term in the case of work agreed for a limited period of time
Upon the employee's death
The Czech pension system is comprised of two parts: mandatory basic pension insurance and voluntary additional pension insurance.
The pension entitlement, the amount of the pension and its payment is determined by the Czech Social Security Administration.
All types of pensions consist of the basic pension, which is uniform, and the percentage assessment, which is determined in accordance with the length of time the recipient has been in the scheme. If you fulfil simultaneously the conditions for obtaining more than one pension, you will be paid only one of these pensions – the higher one.
Retirement pension – anyone reaching retirement age who has paid in to the scheme for a sufficient number of years is entitled to a retirement pension The retirement age for women is reduced proportionally in line with the number of children they have raised (not for women born after 1971).
Early retirement pension – entitlement to this kind of pension is conditional upon having been insured for the required length of time and having reached 60 years of age.
Disability pension – may be granted on the basis of a medical assessment by the physician of the Czech Social Security Administration (ČSSZ) only if the insured has: 1) become disabled and has been insured for the required time, or 2) become disabled due to a work injury or occupational illness. Persons receiving disability pension may receive income from gainful activities.
Widow’s and widower’s pension – the spouse of a deceased person who was in receipt of a pension or who had been insured for the necessary number of years for entitlement to a full retirement pension, or who died as a result of a work injury, is entitled to such a pension.
Orphan’s pension – a dependent child whose parent (or adoptive parent) or guardian has died, where the latter 1) was in receipt at the time of his/her death of a retirement or full or partial disability pension or 2) had been insured at the time of his/her death for the number of years necessary for a retirement pension and/or 3) died as a result of work injury, is entitled to such a pension.
Labour Code (Act No 262/2006)
Act on Pension Insurance (Act No 155/1995)
Ministry of Labour and Social Affairs
Czech Social Security Administration
Trade unions have the right to participate in labour law relationships, including collective bargaining, under terms stipulated by law. The establishment of trade union bodies depends mainly on initiatives in individual companies. Basic trade union organisations operate in the companies of individual employers or can bring together trade union members from two or more employers in a given region. Membership of trade union organisations is voluntary and any member may leave the organisation at any time.
The main aim of trade union organisations is to conclude collective agreements that regulate, in particular, the working conditions and wages of all employees.
For instance, employers inform trade unions about changes in wages and salaries, about the company’s economic situation, changes in the organisation of work, the employee assessment and remuneration system, the system of educating and training employees, or measures to improve occupational health and safety.
In the absence of a trade union body it is possible to form a works council or a council of representatives for occupational safety and health protection.
The State Labour Inspection Office and eight regional labour inspectorates are state administration bodies whose main task is to monitor compliance with labour law obligations, including health and safety regulations. In justified cases, labour inspection authorities may impose fines for committing an offence or administrative offence. The State Labour Inspection Office (the ‘Office’) is managed by the Ministry of Labour and Social Affairs. In addition to inspections, the basic tasks of the Office and the Inspectorates are advisory, consulting and awareness-raising activities. The activities of the Office and inspectorates are governed by Act No 251/2005 Coll. on Labour Inspection. The main objective of the work of the Office and the inspectorates is and must not be repression, but prevention, i.e. the effort to prevent negative phenomena – occupational accidents, occupational diseases and technical equipment accidents – and the best possible preparation for the consequences of such events if they occur.
The inspection powers of the Labour Office are laid down in the Employment Act and by the financial control standards. As regards the public, this activity includes monitoring compliance with the Employment Act No 435/2004, and with the Protection of Employees (Insolvencies) Act.
Public administration portal of the Czech Republic
Czech-Moravian Confederation of Trade Unions
State Labour Inspection Office
Disputes between employers and employees about claims arising from employment contracts are reviewed and ruled on by the courts.
An employee who feels that his/her employer fails to observe the Labour Code in any way can file a complaint with the district labour inspectorate which has jurisdiction over the place where the employer operates. Labour inspectorates may also impose fines for unlawful conduct.
State Labour Inspection Office
746 01 Opava
Tel. +420 950 179 101
Strikes are mainly organised by trade unions with the aim of bargaining with employers. Most strikes take the form of a warning, when employees are trying to obtain concessions from their employer. The results of strikes depend on the circumstances and also on the approach of the employer. For the period of participation in a strike, the participant is not entitled to either salary or salary compensation. Participation in a strike is considered to be an authorised absence from work until such time that a court decision on the unlawfulness of the strike comes into force.
The term Vocational Education and Training refers to practical activities and courses related to a specific occupation or vocation, aimed at preparing participants for their future careers. Vocational training is an essential means to achieve professional recognition and improve chances to get a job. It is therefore vital that vocational training systems in Europe respond to the needs of citizens and the labour market in order to facilitate access to employment.
Vocational education and training has been an essential part of EU policy since the very establishment of the European Community. It is also a crucial element of the so-called EU Lisbon Strategy, which aims at transforming Europe into the world’s most competitive and dynamic knowledge-based society. In 2002 the European Council reaffirmed this vital role, and established yet another ambitious goal – to make European education and training renowned globally by the year 2010 – by championing a number of world-class initiatives, and in particular by strengthening cooperation in the area of vocational training.
On 24 November 2020, the Council of the European Union adopted a Recommendation on vocational education and training for sustainable competitiveness, social fairness and resilience.
The Recommendation defines key principles for ensuring that vocational education and training is agile in that it adapts swiftly to labour market needs and provides quality learning opportunities for young people and adults alike.
It places a strong focus on the increased flexibility of vocational education and training, reinforced opportunities for work-based learning, apprenticeships and improved quality assurance.
The Recommendation also replaces the EQAVET – European Quality Assurance in Vocational Education and Training – Recommendation and includes an updated EQAVET Framework with quality indicators and descriptors. It repeals the former ECVET Recommendation.
To promote these reforms, the Commission supports Centres of Vocational Excellence (CoVEs) which bring together local partners to develop ‘skills ecosystems'. Skills ecosystems will contribute to regional, economic and social development, innovation and smart specialisation strategies.
Erasmus+ is the EU's programme to support education, training, youth and sport in Europe.
It has an estimated budget of €26.2 billion. This is nearly double the funding compared to its predecessor programme (2014-2020).
The 2021-2027 programme places a strong focus on social inclusion, the green and digital transitions, and promoting young people’s participation in democratic life.
It supports priorities and activities set out in the European Education Area, Digital Education Action Plan and the European Skills Agenda. The programme also
- supports the European Pillar of Social Rights
- implements the EU Youth Strategy 2019-2027
- develops the European dimension in sport
Who can take part? Find out here.
Adult Education and Lifelong Learning in Europe
Lifelong learning is a process that involves all forms of education – formal, informal and non-formal – and lasts from the pre-school period until after retirement. It is meant to enable people to develop and maintain key competencies throughout their life as well as to empower citizens to move freely between jobs, regions and countries. Lifelong learning is also a core element of the previously mentioned Lisbon Strategy, as it is crucial for self-development and the raising of competitiveness and employability. The EU has adopted several instruments for the promotion of adult education in Europe.
In order to make lifelong learning a reality in Europe, the European Commission has set itself the objective of creating a European Area of Lifelong Learning. In this context, the Commission focuses on identifying the needs of both learners and the labour market in order to make education more accessible and subsequently create partnerships between public administrations, suppliers of educational services and civil society.
This EU initiative is based on the objective of providing basic skills – by strengthening counselling and information services at a European level, and by recognising all forms of learning, including formal education and informal and non-formal training.
EU organisations promoting vocational education in Europe
With the objective of facilitating cooperation and exchange in the field of vocational training, the EU has set up specialised bodies working in the field of VOCATIONAL TRAINING.
The European Centre for Vocational Training (CEDEFOP / Centre Européen pour le Développement de la Formation Professionnelle) was created in 1975 as a specialised EU agency for the promotion and development of vocational education and training in Europe. Based in Thessaloniki, Greece, it carries out research and analysis on vocational training and disseminates its expertise to various European partners, such as related research institutions, universities or training facilities.
The European Training Foundation was established in 1995 and works in close collaboration with CEDEFOP. Its mission is to support partner countries (from outside the EU) to modernise and develop their systems for vocational training.
Quality of life – on top of the EU social policy agenda
Favourable living conditions depend on a wide range of factors, such as quality healthcare services, education and training opportunities or good transport facilities, just to name a few aspects affecting citizens’ everyday life and work. The European Union has set for itself the aim to constantly improve the quality of life in all its Member States, and to take into account the new challenges of contemporary Europe, such as socially exclude people or an aging population.
Employment in Europe
Improving employment opportunities in Europe is a key priority for the European Commission. With the prospect of tackling the problem of unemployment and increasing the mobility between jobs and regions, a wide variety of initiatives at EU level are being developed and implemented to support the European Employment strategy. These include the European Employment Services network (EURES) and the EU Skills Panorama.
Health and healthcare in the European Union
Health is a cherished value, influencing people’s daily lives and therefore an important priority for all Europeans. A healthy environment is crucial for our individual and professional development, and EU citizens are ever more demanding about health and safety at work and the provision of high quality healthcare services. They require quick and easy access to medical treatment when travelling across the European Union. EU health policies are aimed at responding to these needs.
The European Commission has developed a coordinated approach to health policy, putting into practice a series of initiatives that complement the actions of national public authorities. The Union’s common actions and objectives are included in EU health programmes and strategies.
The current EU4Health Programme (2021-2027) is the EU’s ambitious response to COVID-19. The pandemic has a major impact on patients, medical and healthcare staff, and health systems in Europe. The new EU4Health programme will go beyond crisis response to address healthcare systems’ resilience.
EU4Health, established by Regulation (EU) 2021/522, will provide funding to eligible entities, health organisations and NGOs from EU countries, or non-EU countries associated to the programme.
With EU4Health, the EU will invest €5.3 billion in current prices in actions with an EU added value, complementing EU countries’ policies and pursuing one or several of EU4Health´s objectives:
- To improve and foster health in the Union
- disease prevention & health promotion
- international health initiatives & cooperation
- To tackle cross-border health threats
- prevention, preparedness & response to cross-border health threats
- complementing national stockpiling of essential crisis-relevant products
- establishing a reserve of medical, healthcare & support staff
- To improve medicinal products, medical devices and crisis-relevant products
- making medicinal products, medical devices and crisis-relevant products available and affordable
- To strengthen health systems, their resilience and resource efficiency
- strengthening health data, digital tools & services, digital transformation of healthcare
- improving access to healthcare
- developing and implementing EU health legislation and evidence-based decision making
- integrated work among national health systems
Education in the EU
Education in Europe has both deep roots and great diversity. Already in 1976, education ministers decided to set up an information network to better understand educational policies and systems in the then nine-nation European Community. This reflected the principle that the particular character of an educational system in any one Member State ought to be fully respected, while coordinated interaction between education, training and employment systems should be improved. Eurydice, the information network on education in Europe, was formally launched in 1980.
In 1986, attention turned from information exchanges to student exchanges with the launch of the Erasmus programme, now grown into the Erasmus+programme, often cited as one of the most successful initiatives of the EU.
Transport in the EU
Transport was one of the first common policies of the then European Community. Since 1958, when the Treaty of Rome entered into force, the EU’s transport policy has focused on removing border obstacles between Member States, thereby enabling people and goods to move quickly, efficiently and cheaply.
This principle is closely connected to the EU’s central goal of a dynamic economy and cohesive society. The transport sector generates 10% of EU wealth measured by gross domestic product (GDP), equivalent to about one trillion Euros a year. It also provides more than ten million jobs.
The Schengen area
The Schengen Convention, in effect since March 1995, abolished border controls within the area of the signatory States and created a single external frontier, where checks have to be carried out in accordance with a common set of rules.
Today, the Schengen Area encompasses most EU countries, except for Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Ireland and Romania. However, Bulgaria, Croatia and Romania are currently in the process of joining the Schengen Area and already applying the Schengen acquis to a large extent. Additionally, also the non-EU States Iceland, Norway, Switzerland and Liechtenstein have joined the Schengen Area.
The creation of a single European market in air transport has meant lower fares and a wider choice of carriers and services for passengers. The EU has also created a set of rights to ensure air passengers are treated fairly.
As an air passenger, you have certain rights when it comes to information about flights and reservations, damage to baggage, delays and cancellations, denied boarding, compensation in the case of accident or difficulties with package holidays. These rights apply to scheduled and chartered flights, both domestic and international, from an EU airport or to an EU airport from one outside the EU, when operated by an EU airline.
Over the last 25 years the Commission has been very active in proposing restructuring the European rail transport market and in order to strengthen the position of railways vis-à-vis other transport modes. The Commission's efforts have concentrated on three major areas which are all crucial for developing a strong and competitive rail transport industry:
- opening the rail transport market to competition,
- improving the interoperability and safety of national networks and
- developing rail transport infrastructure.
The Czech Republic is a parliamentary democracy, with independent courts and state power enforced by the rule of law. The head of state in the Czech Republic is the president, although executive power is mainly in the hands of the government. The Constitution of the Czech Republic and the Charter of Fundamental Rights and Freedoms are the two fundamental documents determining the nature of Czech democracy and its organisation. The official currency is the Czech crown (koruna).
The administration of the country is organised within three levels: central: the state and state institutions, regional: region and regional authorities, local: municipalities. The country is divided into 14 regions.
Legislative power lies with parliament, which is made up of two chambers. The Chamber of Deputies has 200 MPs, who are elected for a term of 4 years. The Senate has 81 senators, whose mandate is for 6 years.
Following parliamentary elections in the Czech Republic on 8th – 9th Oct 2021, the main political parties in the government are the coalition ANO, ODS and the Czech Pirate Party.
The president is elected directly for a term of 5 years. In addition to representing the Czech Republic, the president appoints and recalls the Prime Minister and other ministers, appoints the judges of the Constitutional Court, has the right to veto legislation passed by parliament, has the right to grant amnesty, etc. The official presidential residence is Prague Castle.
The supreme organ of executive power is the government. The government makes decisions through the Council of Ministers.
There are several kinds and instances of court, all of which are independent. At the lowest level there are district courts. Then come the regional courts and high courts, the Supreme Court and the Supreme Administrative Court.
The Public Prosecutor’s Office represents the public prosecution in criminal cases and also supervises the activities of the investigating authorities. The public defender of rights or ‘ombudsman’ deals with complaints submitted by individuals regarding actions of authorities and other institutions.
Parties to court proceedings have the right to legal counsel, a citizen or a company may arrange legal representation and hire an attorney to represent them before a court.
Duties related to security and public order are carried out by the Police of the Czech Republic. Apart from the police, there are also uniformed officers in towns who operate under the auspices of the municipal police. The municipal police are a municipal body that maintains local public order under the jurisdiction of the municipality.
President of the Czech Republic
Government of the Czech Republic
Chamber of Deputies of the Parliament of the Czech Republic
Public Defender of Rights – Ombudsman
Czech National Bank
Presentation of the Police of the Czech Republic
Supreme Audit Office
Public administration portal of the Czech Republic
In the fourth quarter of 2021, the nominal gross monthly earnings (taking into account the number of people working in the national economy) were CZK 40 135. (Source: Czech Statistical Office, Average earnings - 4th quarter 2021 | CSO (czso.cz)
Average gross monthly earnings
Mining and quarrying
Financial and insurance activities
Accommodation and food services
Administrative and support services
Arts, entertainment and recreation
*Average gross monthly earnings taking into account the number of people in work
If you are liable to pay tax in the Czech Republic (e.g. on the basis of an employment contract with a Czech employer), you may, under legally stipulated circumstances, claim non-taxable amounts.
Your employer will pay a tax advance on your behalf every month. The monthly rate is one twelfth of the above amounts. As an employee, you may apply for an annual tax calculation at the beginning of the following year, or submit a tax return for the preceding year to your local tax office. Any overpaid tax will be refunded to you.
The advance income tax is calculated on gross wages. The unified tax rate for 2021 and 2022 is set at 15% for all natural persons.
Contributions for health and social insurance from gross pay
The employee pays - 4.5% for health insurance
- 6.5% for social security
The employer pays 9% and 24.8% of the amount of gross salaries for health insurance and social security respectively for all its employees.
Value added tax
The basic rate for 2022 is 21%, but some goods and services are subject to reduced rates of 15% (e.g. food, accommodation services) and 10% (applicable only to goods and services listed in the relevant annex to the VAT Act. These include catering, some craft and professional services, as well as water and sewage. Furthermore, rates of 10% have also been unified for books, e-books and audiobooks.
Excise duty applies to propellants, fuels, spirits, beer, cigarettes and wine and is payable by the importer or manufacturer. Small quantities of these goods may be imported for personal consumption – see section 2.1. Movement of goods and capital.
Other taxes that may be payable under specific circumstances include road tax, real estate transfer tax, real estate tax and environmental taxes.
Expert independent finance portal
Personal finance server
Ministry of Finance
The Czechs spend the dominant part (about one fourth) of their income on food, non-alcoholic and alcoholic beverages and tobacco. Another important item is housing costs, which are comparable with the rest of the EU and represent about 25% of overall expenditure. Approximately 20% of income is spent on culture and leisure time. Substantial sums (14% of income) are also spent on transport and telecommunications.
Prices of the most common goods and services:
Bread: CZK 35
Milk (1 l): CZK 25
Eggs (10pcs): CZK 40
Bottled mineral water (1.5 l): CZK 25
Sugar (1 kg): CZK 35
Potatoes (1 kg): CZK 30
Tomatoes (1 kg): CZK 70
Frozen chicken (1 kg): CZK 100
Big Mac: CZK 89
Pizza Margherita (at a restaurant): CZK 180
Steak (at a restaurant): CZK 300
Electricity (average household): CZK 3 000
Petrol (unleaded 95): CZK 44
Bank account – free of charge or charged: CZK 100
The exchange rate with the euro is CZK 24 to CZK 26.
Czech National Bank
Czech Statistical Office
Czech Statistical Office
Accommodation and housing costs in the Czech Republic may vary significantly depending on the location and also on the size, category and furnishings of the flat or house. In general, the housing situation in the Czech Republic is complicated and finding cheap rented accommodation is not easy. The highest rents are charged in large cities with low unemployment, particularly in the centre of the capital.
There are council flats in the Czech Republic, but their number is declining and the likelihood of being able to acquire such housing is very small. There are also co-op flats, where a housing co-operative is the owner of the building and flats are rented to members of the co-operative. Sublets of co-operative flats are often offered by members of housing co-operatives. Other flats and houses are under private ownership, and letting thereof is governed by the Civil Code.
A common practice is the conclusion of a lease contract for a limited period. The conclusion of a lease contract is also governed by the Civil Code and it is advisable to consult a lawyer before signing the lease agreement.
If you purchase a flat or a house, you should conclude a written contract. You will become the owner of the flat or house upon the official registration of the ownership title in the property register. The property register contains records of ownership titles and other property rights relating to all immovable property in the Czech Republic and is administered by the land registry (cadastral) office. It is also recommended that you consult a lawyer when buying a flat or a house.
It is usual to use the services of an estate agency. Commissions to estate agencies are typically around 3–7% of the selling price of the property and equal to one month’s rent in the case of the fee for renting through an agency.
Civil Code (Act No 40/1964) -
Association of Estate Agencies in the Czech Republic
State Administration of Land Surveying and Cadastre
In the Czech Republic, there are state and non-state health facilities. Nearly all of them have concluded a contract on the provision of healthcare and the reimbursement of the costs thereof with a health insurance company, and provide health care to insured patients for a symbolic charge.
In case of illness, a patient usually turns first to a primary care physician (general practitioner, dentist, gynaecologist). You should check whether the physician, with whom you first have to register, has concluded a contract with the insurance company where you are insured.
You may visit a specialist in the Czech Republic without a referral from a primary care physician.
Necessary medical care in the case of sudden illness outside the surgery hours of the attending physician is provided, depending on local circumstances, by an after-hours medical service.
The medical emergency services, whose telephone number is 155, provide medical care in the case of sudden illness or injury, when a patient cannot get to a doctor by his or her own means.
An administrative fee of CZK 90 has been introduced in the Czech Republic in the interests of regulation and to reduce waste and the abuse of medical services. This fee is payable for emergency medical treatment, which is deemed to be treatment between 17.00 and 7.00 on working days, and at weekends.
Health care in the Czech Republic is provided mostly on the basis of mandatory public health insurance. Private health insurance is complementary. Entitlement to public health insurance arises under the law for persons who reside permanently in the Czech Republic or for employees of an employer with his or her registered office in the Czech Republic. Participation in public health insurance is prescribed by law and does not require a contract with an insurance company. However, you may elect a health insurance company with which you wish to be insured. Individuals who do not meet the conditions for participation in public health insurance may take out private health insurance. This type of health insurance may be taken out with only six insurance companies (VZP ČR (General Health Insurance Company), Axa Assistance, ERGO, Maxima, Slavia and UNIQA).
If you move around the EU you should only be insured in one Member State. This is usually the Member State where you work. If you work at the same time in two or more Member States and reside in one of them, you are insured in the state where you reside. If you are an employee deployed to the Czech Republic by another Member State, you remain insured there. It is necessary to present at all times the form issued by the health insurance company in your country. You have to apply for the relevant form before travelling to the Czech Republic. The same applies in respect of family members. This form has to be presented either directly to the physician or hospital, or to a local health insurance authority. Persons participating in public or private health insurance are obliged to pay regularly insurance premiums. These are due as of the starting date of the insurance.
Health Insurance Bureau
General health insurance company
Public administration portal of the Czech Republic
The Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports (MŠMT) is the central state administration authority responsible for preschool facilities, primary and secondary schools and universities.
The education system in the Czech Republic has a long tradition dating back to 1774, when compulsory schooling was introduced. Today, the Czech Republic has all types of education, beginning with preschool, through to primary, secondary, university, postgraduate and continuous education.
Nursery schools are part of the school system and are designed for children from 3 to 6 years of age. At most nurseries schooling is free. Parents contribute to the running costs. There is a huge range of both publicly run and private nursery schools in the Czech Republic. Preschool education is compulsory for a child of up to five years by the beginning of the school year. This obligation was introduced in the 2017/2018 school year.
Compulsory education lasts for 9 years, normally from the age of 6 to 15. In most cases it is provided by primary schools. Even though there are defined catchment areas, there is no restriction on the choice of school.
Primary school has nine grades, divided into the lower level with the first five years and the higher level with four years. The school year begins on 1 September and ends on 31 August of the following year. Pupils are assessed on the basis of written and oral examinations and given marks ranging from 1 to 5. Continuous assessment is summarised in the report issued at the end of each six-month period. Lessons last for 45 minutes. Children may complete their compulsory schooling in an eight-year or six-year study programme at a grammar school.
Disabled children can be integrated into regular classes or taught in special primary school classes. They can also attend special schools.
Grammar schools provide complete general secondary education. They prepare students for post-secondary education. They have four-year, six-year and eight-year programmes. At the end of their studies students take a school-leaving examination.
Secondary vocational schools provide complete vocational secondary education, studies last for 4 or 5 years and at the end of their studies students take a vocational examination.
Secondary technical schools usually offer three-year apprenticeship courses, which end with a school leaving examination and the award of a certificate of apprenticeship. They prepare students for skilled worker occupations.
Conservatoires provide specific secondary education and prepare students for teaching and artistic professions. Study programmes last for six to eight years. At the end of their studies, students take a school-leaving examination or prepare a graduation performance.
Higher technical colleges
These provide necessary technical education and practical preparation necessary for technical jobs. There are two-year and three-year programmes. At the end of their studies students take a theoretical or practical leaving examination.
Universities provide Bachelor’s degree (undergraduate) programmes, Master’s programmes (graduate) and postgraduate studies. Programmes in technical and economic fields lead to an ‘engineering’ (‘Ing’) degree.
Public post-secondary institutions are divided into universities and ‘vysoké školy‘ (literally: ‘high schools’).
Universities, which represent the predominant form of public higher education, also have to engage in research, scientific and development activities, as well as teaching.
Studies conducted in Czech at public and state-owned universities are free of charge.
In addition to the public universities, there are also private universities in the Czech Republic. Like departments at public universities, accreditation from the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports is required for the establishment of a private university.
Continuing adult education
Adult education and professional training is provided by schools, employers and private educational institutions, and through retraining programmes organised by labour offices.
Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports of the Czech Republic
Overview of schools and study options
Education and information portal
Centre for Higher Education
Cultural and social life in the Czech Republic is extremely diverse and has a long tradition.
Among the most prominent characters who have fundamentally influenced the history and subsequent development of cultural and social life in Bohemia, we should remember the father of the nation, Charles IV, who led the Czech kingdom to its greatest glory. We should also remember the great reformer of the Catholic Church, Jan Hus, and František Palacký, the historian, politician and leading figure in the Czech National Renaissance, a man also known as the father of the nation.
As regards modern history, we should not forget Thomáš Garrigue Masaryk – the first president of independent Czechoslovakia, and Václav Havel – the first president elected democratically after the fall of Communism.
Just as the nation has changed and developed, so has the national character. The greatest changes took place after 1989 when the Communist regime was overthrown and democracy was installed. The Czechs are a creative people, masters of improvisation and possess a very broad general outlook. They regard themselves as an inventive people, if rather non-assertive, lacking in self-confidence and having a tendency to criticise.
Foreign visitors have a high regard for Czech historic monuments, the Czech countryside, Czech beer and the capital city of Prague. The leisure activities of most young people include mainly sport, studying languages and having fun, while older sections of the population prefer watching television, housework, looking after their children, spending time on various hobbies, or spending time at their weekend cottages. In their early days, the latter were a continuation of the old tradition of hiking but restricted opportunities for travel have also played a part.
The Czech Republic can also provide numerous other possibilities for cultural enjoyment. A favourite way of spending one’s free time is to go to the theatre or the cinema. Czechs enjoy visiting historic monuments such as castles, stately homes and churches, and natural monuments and sites such as national parks, protected landscape areas and caves, etc. Visiting spas is also popular, thanks to an abundance of curative springs in the country. Ice hockey and football are popular sports, tennis has a rich tradition, and cycling is another favourite; hiking, downhill and cross-country skiing, biathlon and volleyball, as well as sports such as archery, sports shooting and mountain-climbing, are also popular.
Official website of the Czech Republic
Every newly born child receives a birth certificate. This is issued by the Registry Office, which is either a municipal or city authority or a district or local authority with delegated powers. The newly born child is automatically covered by the health insurance provided by the health insurance company where
his/her mother is insured. Parents can, however, change their child’s health insurance company at any time.
The child becomes a Czech citizen if at least one of its parents has Czech citizenship.
Any single person who has reached the age of 18 may get married. Persons under the age of 18 may marry only with the permission of the courts. Marriage between close relatives is not allowed, nor is marriage between an individual and his or her parent, or between an adopted child and his or her adopted parent. After marriage, the spouses are issued with a marriage certificate.
Marriage in the Czech Republic may be either civil or religious. People who wish to get married in church have to obtain a certificate from the registry office showing that they meet all legal requirements for marriage.
A registered partnership is a permanent association of two individuals of the same sex established in the manner stipulated by the Registered Partnership Act, No 115/2006. Such partnerships may be concluded in the Czech Republic only if one of the partners has Czech citizenship. Registered partnership between close relatives, siblings and persons below 18 years of age is prohibited.
Everyone should leave a will regulating his or her estate. If a person dies without leaving a will, the court will decide on the distribution of his or her property in accordance with the Civil Code.
Close relatives of the deceased can receive, under certain circumstances, a financial grant to cover funeral expenses. The widow or widower and her or his children can also receive social security payments. These are called widow’s/widower’s and orphan’s pension respectively.
Useful searches for various life situations and services provided by the authorities -
State social support
The Czech Republic has a functional intrastate and interstate transport system. It borders Germany, Austria, Hungary, Slovakia and Poland, with which it has connecting roads.
Electronic toll collection has been introduced on motorways, and is obligatory for certain types of vehicles – namely vehicles over 3.5 tonnes. Tolls must also be paid on designated parts of dual carriageways and selected A roads. Passenger cars and goods vehicles of up to 3.5 tonnes must display a valid motorway coupon sticker when travelling on motorways (an annual coupon costs CZK 1 500). The maximum permitted speed on motorways is 130 kph, on ordinary roads 90 kph, exceptionally on some A roads 110 kph and in built-up areas 50 kph. Some sections of road have signs prescribing the use of winter equipment. On such sections, vehicles must have winter tyres fitted from 1 November until 30 April.
The railway network is one of the most extensive in Europe and covers the greater part of the country. The InterCity, EuroCity, Expres, SuperCity and Regiojet trains are among the fastest connections. The Pendolino express train runs on the Prague – Ostrava line.
There are integrated transport systems operating in and around the larger cities (Prague, Brno, České Budějovice, Plzeň, Zlín, etc.), incorporating railways, regional bus transport and city public transport. Passengers can use a single ticket to combine various types of interconnected transport.
The largest international airport is Václav Havel Airport Prague, which is about 20 km north-west of the city centre. Other airports providing international and domestic flights include Brno, Ostrava, Pardubice and Karlovy Vary.
Nationwide information system for transport timetables
Ministry of Transport